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Table 3 Comparison of effects on forenoon and afternoon walking

From: A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints

   Forenoon session   Afternoon session    Interactionc
     n    Beforea    Afterb    n    Beforea    Afterb  
Actual sleep time (min)    26    380.0 ± 99.6    385.6 ± 101.7    16    342.9 ± 66.2    475.4 ± 150.5    0.005
Actual sleep (%)    26    88.8 ± 5.1    88.9 ± 5.5    16    83.9 ± 9.6    86.6 ± 8.7    0.28
Sleep latency (min)    26    22.8 ± 40.2    11.1 ± 10.9    16    15.6 ± 14.3    9.4 ± 7.3    0.61
Immobile time (min)    26    372.2 ± 95.7    377.5 ± 98.2    16    330.6 ± 72.8    463.4 ± 153.6    0.006
St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire        
   Self-rated depth of sleep (score)    35    4.5 ± 1.4    4.9 ± 1.4    29    4.9 ± 1.3    5.2 ± 1.6    0.57
   Number of awakenings (times)    37    1.46 ± 1.26    1.49 ± 1.22    29    1.52 ± 1.24    1.41 ± 1.50    0.63
   Sleep quality (score)    34    3.9 ± 1.1    4.2 ± 1.2    29    4.1 ± 1.0    4.3 ± 1.2    0.87
   Alertness on waking (score)    34    3.4 ± 1.2    3.6 ± 1.4    28    3.4 ± 1.2    3.8 ± 1.1    0.64
   Satisfaction with sleep (score)    34    3.2 ± 1.0    3.2 ± 1.1    29    3.3 ± 1.1    3.6 ± 0.9    0.30
   Early morning awakening (n, % yes)    34    5, 14.7%    5, 14.7%    26    5, 19.2%    3, 11.5%  
   Difficultly falling asleep (score)    35    1.2 ± 0.5    1.2 ± 0.5    29    1.3 ± 0.6    1.2 ± 0.5    0.23
  1. Mean ± SD, a: night before forest walking, b: night after forest walking, c: repeated analysis of variance.