Work-related stress and psychosomatic medicine
© Nakao; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 7 May 2010
Accepted: 26 May 2010
Published: 26 May 2010
This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care for stress management in the workplace: focusing on individuals, utilizing supervisory lines, enlisting company health care staff, and referring to medical resources outside the company. Good communications between occupational health practitioners and physicians in charge in hospitals/clinics help employees with psychosomatic distress to return to work, and it is critical for psychosomatic practitioners and researchers to understand the basic ideas of work-related stress from the viewpoint of occupational health.
Stress is a term used to define the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health in 2004 , 49% of individuals aged 12 years or older reported experiencing stress in their daily lives. This survey examined stress in 28 domains, including work, family, and neighborhood relationships, as well as living-, social-, financial-, and health-related situations. Work-related problems were the most frequent stressors, followed by health-related and then financial problems.
Severity of psychosocial stressors in adults: DSM-III-R axis IV .
Examples of psychosocial stressors in adulthood
Broke up with boyfriend/girlfriend
Started or graduated from school
Child left home
Residence in high-crime region
Serious financial problems
Loss of job
Trouble with boss
Being a single parent
Birth of first child
Death of spouse
Serious chronic illness
Serious physical illness diagnosed
Ongoing physical or sexual abuse
Victim of rape
Death of child
Captivity as hostage
Suicide of spouse
Concentration camp experience
Devastating natural disaster
Categories of psychosocial and environmental problems: DSM-IV-TR axis IV [3.]
Problems with primary support group
Problems related to the social environment
Occupational problems (examples below)
Threat of job loss
Stressful work schedule
Difficult working conditions
Discord with boss or co-workers
Problems with access to health care services
Problems related to interaction with the legal system/crime
Other psychosocial and environmental problems
Although psychosomatic patients frequently identify work-related problems, these stressors have typically been considered to be relatively mild in severity. For example, acute events, such as job loss or retirement, were regarded as moderate psychosocial stressors in the DSM-III-R assessment, whereas familial events, such as divorce or birth of a first child, were regarded as severe stressors. One of the reasons for such rating criteria is that, while work-related stress is common, it is difficult to assess diagnostically. However, the working environment in Japan and other countries has been changing dramatically. Many employees have been forced to work harder because of ongoing business restructuring and some have suffered from psychosomatic symptoms caused by their work, while others have committed suicide and have been officially acknowledged as victims of depression caused by overwork. Thus, psychosomatic clinicians should pay particular attention to work-related stress when evaluating patients.
Work-related stress includes the concepts of job stress, employment status, job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. This article introduces key work-related stress concepts (i.e., the job stress model and effects of unstable job conditions on health) relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine.
Concept of job stress
Job stress is a substantial and growing concern for workers, their advocates, employers, occupational health and safety regulators, and workers' compensation programs [6, 7]. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health defines job stress as "the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker" . Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease [9, 10], insomnia , depression, and anxiety . Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by indirectly limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior .
Job stress can result from the job itself (e.g., heavy workload, low input into decision making) or the social and organizational contexts in which the job is performed (e.g., poor communication, interpersonal conflict). There is considerable variation in the way workers perceive and respond to the environments in which they work. Personal (e.g., coping skills) and situational variables (e.g., support from supervisors) influence the onset and duration of job stress, and circumstances that one person finds demanding and stressful may be perceived by others as challenging and simulating .
Job stress model
Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model proposed by Karasek and Theorell  and the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model developed by Siegrist .
Further work by Johnson and Thorell [17, 22] added the important dimension of occupational social support to Karasek's model, as it had been noted that support from supervisors and co-workers buffered the effects of high demands and low control. This integrated model is called the demand-control-support model. In this context, determining whether a social network provides support to mediate psychosocial strain is decisive in the development of illness . Working conditions that include both high strain and low social support (i.e., iso-strain) have the greatest negative impact.
In Siegrist's ERI model, high-cost and low-gain work conditions are particularly stressful. Work offers opportunities to gain self-esteem, efficacy, and integration. According to the social exchange theory, workers invest effort and expect these rewards in return. If there is an imbalance in the expected exchange that prevents workers from receiving rewards, then psychological distress occurs, accompanied by physiological arousal. Thus, one risk factor for ill health is a combination of high effort at work, which may entail intrinsic effort and innate competitiveness and hostility, combined with high extrinsic job demands and little reward in terms of salary, promotion, or esteem.
Example of job stress study
Effects of job stress, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and mood state on brachial-ankle pulse velocity in 396 male workers.
Job Content Questionnaireb
CVD risk factors
Body mass index
Serum lipid levels
Fasting glucose levels
Serum catecholamine levels
Cigarettes smoked per day
Profile of Mood State
Unemployment and job insecurity
Evidence has consistently indicated that unemployment is associated with increased mortality and morbidity [32–34]. Due to the labor market structure, previous studies defined work status as a dichotomy (i.e., employed or unemployed). However, during the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries. Employers and policy makers have seen labor-market flexibility as a means of improving worker performance and adaptability in the face of technical change and increasing globalization. As a result, the labor market has increasingly moved toward a core-periphery structure in which the core comprises employees with relatively secure permanent jobs, and the periphery consists of the "buffer work force" with various temporary, unstable, and insecure work arrangements, among which the outermost sector has the highest risk for unemployment [35–37].
The firing of temporary workers is an issue of great concern in Japan. The world financial crisis became publicly known around October 2008 with the fall of Lehman Brothers. The Japanese economy depends greatly on the American economy; it is often said, "When America catches a cold, Japan risks pneumonia." In Japan, temporary workers started losing their jobs as a result of the economic recession. Because a temporary employment system has only recently been initiated in Japan, this rapid increase in firings will have a major impact on workers, those seeking jobs, and their family members . The largest issue is that the Japanese health management system, including accident insurance and medical benefits, does not accommodate the variety of current employment patterns. Of great concern, little medical research has focused on possible risks of mental health problems among temporary workers, who face high levels of job insecurity.
Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive lower compensation than permanent workers . Our own research has found that term-limited workers tend to work more hours and experience symptoms of fatigue more frequently than do permanent workers . A significant body of research  reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years, but the recent sudden increase in job insecurity is beyond expectation; it is akin to an acute trauma or sudden-onset disaster that gives temporary workers a "one-two punch" of both acute and chronic stress.
Practitioners of psychosomatic medicine have been seeing many patients who are temporary workers complaining of psychosomatic distress due to job insecurity; indeed, some have already attempted suicide. This situation is not limited to the Japanese population; it is a problem in all industrial countries. The growing frequency with which temporary workers are being fired threatens to create a situation that may be termed "creeping" mental health problems. Thus, in this author's opinion, we have a responsibility to speak about such issues publicly to determine whether temporary working conditions really affect health status.
Management of job stress
The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care: focusing on individuals, utilizing supervisory lines, enlisting company health care staff, and referring to medical resources outside of the company . Concerning the fourth approach, medical resources are not limited to psychosomatic practitioners or other clinics/hospitals; for example, employee assistance programs (EAPs) have attracted a great deal of attention in Japan since 2000 as promising medical resources outside the workplace. Originally, EAPs were employer-sponsored systems developed to restore or improve the functioning of workers whose personal problems were affecting job performance . Newer, more comprehensive EAPs engage in identification, assessment, monitoring, referral, short-term counseling, and follow-up activities with regard to the emotional, financial, legal, family, and substance-abuse concerns of employees. In this sense, comprehensive EAPs are new in Japan and primarily target the mental health care of employees. In our cohort study of 283 male Japanese employees who accessed EAP services , total scores on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale after the 2-year study period decreased significantly on five items: suicidal thoughts, agitation, psychomotor retardation, guilt, and depressed mood. Specifically, 19 (86%) of the 22 workers with a positive response to the suicidal thoughts item at baseline (i.e., score ≥ 1) reported no suicidal thoughts after the 2-year study period (i.e., score = 0). No significant changes were observed in the control group. These data suggest that introducing an EAP may decrease perceived psychosocial stress in a working population.
Work-related stress is commonly seen in psychosomatic medicine clinics. The job demand-control-support model and the ERI model are recognized as reliable and useful for assessing job stress. Both unemployment and job insecurity are regarded as risk factors associated with increased mortality and morbidity in a variety of physical and psychological disease conditions. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. To manage stress in the workplace, a combination of individual-focused and organization-focused approaches is the most promising , and the following four approaches are recommended for comprehensive mind/body health care in the workplace: focusing on individuals, utilizing supervisory lines, enlisting company health care staff, and referring to medical resources outside the company.
In the occupational health field, medical professionals have many roles, including regular health examinations of employees, health consultation with symptomatic employees, and regular monitoring of the work environment to protect all workers. In addition, metabolic syndrome health examinations and special examinations for employees with excessive work schedules are current concerns in the Japanese workplace. Because physicians specializing in psychosomatic medicine can assess both physical and psychological illness, they are often asked to perform such assessments in the workplace. Medicine should not be limited to disease treatment in a hospital; it is also important to prevent disease. To practice psychosomatic medicine in the hospital requires a trusting relationship between the patient and doctor, and both must be aware of the power of the mind-body connection. Communication is the key factor for developing this relationship. This is also true for the relationship between the employee and occupational health physician and between the occupational health physician and the physician in charge at the hospital, who see the same patient in different settings. For example, good communication helps employees with psychosomatic distress to recover and return to work. For this reason, it is critical for psychosomatic practitioners and researchers to understand the basic ideas of work-related stress from the viewpoint of occupational health.
The author proposed and submitted this manuscript to BioPsychoSocial Medicine after agreement with the Editorial Committee of the Japanese Society of Occupational Health (JOH). The author appreciates the support of all JOH editorial members who attended the March 2010 conference.
- Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare: National Survey of Health 2004. 2006, Tokyo: Kosei Toukei KyoukaiGoogle Scholar
- The Committee of Education and Training of the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine: An updated treatment guideline of psychosomatic medicine. Jpn J Psychosom Med. 1991, 31: 537-576.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition, text revision. 2000, Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric PressView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: 1987, Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, thirdGoogle Scholar
- Nakao M, Nomura S, Yamanaka G, Kumano H, Kuboki T: Assessment of patients by DSM-III-R and DSM-IV in a Japanese psychosomatic clinic. Psychother Psychosom. 1998, 67: 43-49. 10.1159/000012258.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keegel T, Ostry A, Lamontagne AD: Job strain exposures vs. stress-related workers' compensation claims in Victoria, Australia: developing a public health response to job stress. J Public Health Policy. 2009, 30: 17-39. 10.1057/jphp.2008.41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawakami N, Tsutsumi A: Job stress and mental health among workers in Asia and the world. J Occup Health. 2010, 52: 1-3. 10.1539/joh.editorial1001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Stress at work. 1999, Cincinnati: NIOSHGoogle Scholar
- Kivimäki M, Leino-Arjas P, Luukkonen R, Riihimäki H, Vahtera J, Kirjonen J: Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ. 2002, 325-857.Google Scholar
- Xu W, Zhao Y, Guo L, Guo Y, Gao W: Job stress and coronary heart disease: a case-control study using a Chinese population. J Occup Health. 2009, 51: 107-113. 10.1539/joh.L8060.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nomura K, Nakao M, Takeuchi T, Yano E: Associations of insomnia with job strain, control, and support among male Japanese workers. Sleep Med. 2009, 10: 626-629. 10.1016/j.sleep.2008.06.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stoetzer U, Ahlberg G, Johansson G, Bergman P, Hallsten L, Forsell Y, Lundberg I: Problematic interpersonal relationships at work and depression: a Swedish prospective cohort study. J Occup Health. 2009, 51: 144-151. 10.1539/joh.L8134.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Noblet A, Lamontagne AD: The role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress. Health Promot Int. 2006, 21: 346-353. 10.1093/heapro/dal029.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cooper CL, Baglioni AJ: A structural model approach toward the development of a theory of the link between stress and mental health. Br J Med Psychol. 1988, 61: 87-102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- LaMontagne AD, Keegel T, Vallance D: Protecting and promoting mental health in the workplace: developing a systems approach to job stress. Health Promot J Austr. 2007, 18: 221-228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- LaMontagne AD, Keegel T, Louie AM, Ostry A, Landsbergis PA: A systematic review of the job-stress intervention evaluation literature, 1990-2005. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2007, 13: 268-280.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karasek R, Theorell T: Healthy work: stress, productivity and the reconstruction of the working life. 1990, New York: Basic BooksGoogle Scholar
- Siegrist J: Adverse health effects of high effort-low reward conditions at work. J Occup Health Psychol. 1996, 1: 27-43. 10.1037/1076-89184.108.40.206.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stahl SM, Haunger RL: Stress: an overview of the literature with emphasis on job-related strain and intervention. Adv Ther. 1994, 11: 110-119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karasek R: Job demands, job decision latitude and mental strain: implication for job redesign. Administr Sci Q. 1979, 24: 285-308. 10.2307/2392498.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stansfeld S, Candy B: Psychosocial work environment and mental health: a meta-analytic review. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006, 32: 443-462.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Johnson JV, Hall EM: Job strain, work place social support, and cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. Am J Public Health. 1988, 78: 1336-1342. 10.2105/AJPH.78.10.1336.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Eller NH, Netterstrøm B, Gyntelberg F, Kristensen TS, Nielsen F, Steptoe A, Theorell T: Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review. Cardiol Rev. 2009, 17: 83-97. 10.1097/CRD.0b013e318198c8e9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karasek R, Gorden G, Pietrovsky C, Frese M, Pieper C: Job content instrument: questionnaire and user's guide. 1985, Los Angeles: University of South CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
- Kawakami N, Fujigaki Y: Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of Job Content Questionnaire: replication and extension in computer company employees. Ind Health. 1996, 34: 295-306. 10.2486/indhealth.34.295.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nomura K, Nakao M, Karita K, Nishikitani M, Yano E: Association between work-related psychological stress and arterial stiffness measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in young Japanese males in an information-service company. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005, 31: 352-359.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schnall PL, Landsbergis PA, Baker D: Job strain and cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Public Health. 1994, 15: 381-411. 10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.002121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greenlund KJ, Liu K, Knox S, McCreath H, Dyer AR, Gardin J: Psychosocial work characteristics and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Disease in Young Adults. Soc Sci Med. 1995, 41: 717-723. 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00385-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siegrist J, Klein D, Voigt KH: Linking sociological with physiological data: the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1997, 640: 112-116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi A, Ishitake T, Peter R, Siegrist J, Matoba T: The Japanese version of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire: a study in dental technicians. Work Stress. 2001, 15: 86-96. 10.1080/02678370110064618.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takaki J, Nakao M, Karita K, Nishikitani M, Yano E: Relationships among effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, and fatigue in Japanese information-technology workers. J Occup Health. 2006, 48: 62-64. 10.1539/joh.48.62.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dooley D, Fielding J, Levi L: Health and unemployment. Annu Rev Public Health. 1996, 17: 449-465. 10.1146/annurev.pu.17.050196.002313.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Artazcoz L, Benach J, Borrell C, Cortès I: Unemployment and mental health: understanding the interactions among gender, family roles, and social class. Am J Public Health. 2004, 94: 82-88. 10.2105/AJPH.94.1.82.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kompier M, Ybema JF, Janssen J, Taris T: Employment contracts: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations with quality of working life, health and well-being. J Occup Health. 2009, 51: 193-203. 10.1539/joh.L8150.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Benach J, Benavides FG, Platt S, Diez-Roux A, Muntaner C: The health-damaging potential of new types of flexible employment: a challenge for public health researchers. Am J Public Health. 2000, 90: 1316-1317. 10.2105/AJPH.90.8.1316.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aronsson G: A new employment contract. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001, 27: 361-364.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Ferrie JE, Elovainio M, Honkonen T, Pentti J, Klaukka T, Vahtera J: Temporary employment and antidepressant medication: a register linkage study. J Psychiatr Res. 2008, 42: 221-229. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.12.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakao M: Psychosocial stress in diseases related to lifestyles. Jpn J Psychosom Med. 2008, 48: 195-203.Google Scholar
- Stybel LJ, Peabody M: The right way to be fired. Harv Bus Rev. 2001, 79: 86-95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakao M, Yano E: A comparative study of behavioral, physical, and mental health status between term-limited and tenure-track employees in a population of Japanese male researchers. Public Health. 2006, 120: 373-379. 10.1016/j.puhe.2005.10.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Virtanen M, Kivimäki M, Joensuu M, Virtanen P, Elovainio M, Vahtera J: Temporary employment and health: a review. Int J Epidemiol. 2005, 34: 610-622. 10.1093/ije/dyi024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare: Guideline for promoting mental health care in enterprise. 2001, Tokyo: Japanese Industrial Safety and Health AssociationGoogle Scholar
- Colantonio A: Assessing the effects of employee assistance programs: a review of employee assistance program evaluations. Yale J Biol Med. 1989, 62: 13-22.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakao M, Nishikitani M, Shima S, Yano E: A 2-year cohort study on the impact of an Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) on depression and suicidal thoughts in male Japanese workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007, 81: 151-157. 10.1007/s00420-007-0196-x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Semmer NK: Job stress interventions and the organization of work. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006, 32: 515-527.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.