# Table 4 Mean difference by carer

PNSM a) PNSM-J b)
DESCRIPTIVES n = 222 n = 1320
Carer Frequency (%) Mean (SD) Frequency (%) Mean (SD)
Mother 185 (83.3) 126.6 (21.6) 1085 (82.2) 123.2 (16.1)
Father 20 (9.0) 117.8 (21.0) 41 (3.1) 114.0 (21.2)
Parents 4 (1.8) 123.0 (14.6) 12 (0.9) 122.1 (17.4)
Grandmother 2 (0.9) 147.0 (4.2) 53 (4.0) 125.2 (17.2)
School teacher 2 (0.9) 102.5 (34.6) 8 (0.6) 118.8 (11.0)
Nanny 2 (0.9) 111.5 (31.8) 0
Brother/Sister 1 (0.5) 146.0 63 (4.8) 112.8 (16.2)
Aunt 1 (0.5) 150.0 1 (0.1) 120.0
Foster parent 1 (0.5) 68.0 1 (0.1) 103.0
Friend 1 (0.5) 106.0 34 (2.6) 121.2 (13.5)
Grand father 0   18 (1.4) 122.9 (18.8)
Neighbour 0   2 (0.2) 139.0 (9.9)
Myself 0   1 (0.1) 109.0
Pet 0   1 (0.1) 92.0
Not identified 3 (1.4)   0
t TEST (Mother vs Father) n = 205 n = 1126
t 1.739 2.755
df 203 41.771
Significance p = 0.084 p = 0.009
CI of difference -1.184 to 18.849 2.463 to 15.969
1. NOTE: a): The modified Parental Nurturance Scale, administered to native English speakers
2. b): Translated Japanese version of the modified Parental Nurturance Scale, administered to native Japanese speakers