|Study||Design||Characteristics of the sample||Major Findings|
|Bjork et al. (1999)||• Cross-sectional study – mail-out survey using the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale, The Life Orientation Test, Beck Depression Inventory and the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory||• 30 usable responses (mean 62 years since diagnosis) from 55 questionnaires distributed||
• Completed a range of distress-related and self-esteem measures|
• Helplessness related to lower self-esteem; Loss appraisals to depression; threat appraisals to anxiety; optimism negatively related to depression and anxiety
|Helgeson and Lepore (1997)||• Cross-sectional study – mail-out using the CARES and several measures developed for the study||• 162 usable responses from 258 questionnaires distributed Most (83%) were radical prostatectomies, a mean of 13 months since diagnosis||
• Self-focused identity associated with worse functioning, greater cancer difficulties and poorer emotional expression|
• Expressed emotion mediated the links between self-identity and cancer difficulties
|Lepore and Helgeson (1998)||• Cross-sectional study – mail-out using MHI-5, Impact of Events Scale, and CARES||• 181 usable responses from 258 questionnaires distributed Most (83%) were radical prostatectomies, a mean of 13 months since diagnosis||
• Social constraints in talking about cancer moderated trauma and mental health relationships|
• Conclusion: Supportive social networks may promote psychological adjustment by facilitating cognitive processing of the cancer experience
|Penedo et al. (2003)||• Cross-sectional study using the Life Orientation Test-Revised and Measure of Current Status||• 46 radical prostatectomy patients recruited to a stress management study||
• Optimism, perceived stress management skills, and positive mood were correlated|
• Relationship between optimism and positive mood might be mediated by perceived stress management skills.
|Zakowski et al. (2003)||• Cross-sectional study comparing men and women with cancer using the Social Constraints Scale, The Emotional Expressivity Scale, the Impact of Events Scale and the Profile of Mood States||• 41 men with PCA and 41 women with gynaecological cancer||
• Men experienced greater distress in association with social constraints from their partners than did the women|
• Men might have fewer outlets for emotional expression so constraints from partners might lead to greater distress.