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Table 1 Cross-sectional studies of psychological adjustment to prostate cancer

From: Psychological adjustment of men with prostate cancer: a review of the literature

Study Design Characteristics of the sample Major Findings
Bacon et al. (2002) • Retrospective comparison of patients and aged-matched healthy controls using the SF-36, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index and the CARES-SF • 783 men with PCA (localized disease), no breakdown by treatment; 1928 age-matched controls • Patients had poorer sexual, urinary and bowel functioning but not role function or mental health
• Patients reported more bother from sexual, urinary and bowel functioning
• Symptoms were related to both physical and psychosocial QOL domains
Balderstone and Towell (2003) • Retrospective study of distress using FACT-P and the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale • 94 men with PCA in various stages • Prevalence of distress: 38%
• Distress was related to poorer physical functioning and lower social support
Clark et al. (2003) • Retrospective comparison of patients and normal controls using the SF-12 and purpose-made symptom measures • 349 men with early-stage PCA and 398 controls • Bowel, urinary and sexual symptoms created greater bother for men with PCA than for controls
• Bowel, then sexual, symptoms had greatest impact on QOL
Curran et al. (1997) • Baseline measures of QOL (EORTC-QLQ) in patients with advanced PCA • 638 advanced-stage PCA patients in 1 of 3 groups: Locoregional; Poor prognosis metastatic; Hormone resistant • Four scales distinguished between the 3 groups
• Locoregional group had better QOL than metastatic, or hormone resistant group
• Some physicians under-rated patients' level of pain
Heim and Oei (1993) • Retrospective study using the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory • 47 patients; 80% described as 'non-metastatic' • 43% reported pain; 20% reported depression
• Pain was correlated with depression and anxiety, increased use of analgesics, and later stages of disease
Helgason et al. (1996) • Retrospective observational study of PCA patients and age-matched controls' sexual, urinary and bowel functions using the Radiumhemmet Scale of Sexual Function • 342 patients with mixed stage and treatment status, compared with 319 controls of similar age • Both groups experienced decline in sexual functioning but more PCA patients were severely distressed
• Urinary and bowel symptoms were less common and few were severely distressed as a result of them
McBride et al. (2000) • Cross-sectional study – mail-out to PCA and breast cancer patients using Impact of Events Scale and measures of lifestyle activities • 920 (420 PCA; 93% radical prostatectomy. 500 were breast cancer patients) usable responses from 1667 questionnaires distributed • Breast cancer patients were younger, sicker and had higher trauma scores
• Trauma scores were negatively related to time from diagnosis
• Among the PCA patients, regular exercisers had lower trauma scores
Schag et al. (1994) • Retrospective observational study of QOL in cancer survivors using CARES • 278 survivors (disease free); 57 lung, 117 colon and 104 PCA • QOL improved for colon cancer but decreased for PCA survivors
• All groups reported a range of QOL issues
Stone et al. (2000) • Retrospective comparison of fatigue and depression in cancer patients and healthy controls using EORTC-QLQ-30 and HADS • 227 cancer patients, including 62 with PCA; 98 controls • Fatigue is common in cancer, especially those with advanced disease
• Fatigue related to depression, anxiety, pain, dyspnoea