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Table 1 Independent variables, number of items, Cronbach' α, and item

From: Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study

Variable No. of items Possible range of scores Cronbach' α Items
Self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure     
   Self-assertive efficacy against smoking 1 1–5 Item How much assertiveness can you express when you are asked by your friends about smoking? (cannot express, cannot express somewhat, neither of them, can express a little, can express)
   Self-assertive efficacy against drinking 1 1–5 Item How much assertiveness can you express when you are asked by your friends about drinking? (cannot express, cannot express somewhat, neither of them, can express a little, can express)
Parental involvement 5 5–25 0.81 How much do your parents or guardians know about your friends; activities; health habits; how you spend your time after school and on weekends; how you are doing at school? (almost nothing, little, neither know nor unknown, a little, a lot)
School adjustment 3 3–15 0.73 How hard or easy is it for you to... follow rules, pay attention in class, and get along with teachers? (much harder, a little harder, neither harder nor easier, a little easier, much easier)
Deviant peer influence     
   Number of friends who smoke 1 0–4 Item How many of your four closest friends (0–4) smoke?
   Number of friends who drink alcohol 1 0–4 Item How many of your four closest friends (0–4) drink alcohol?
  1. Psychosocial variables, number of items, internal consistency of index, and items with response options are shown.