Path model of drinking structure for boys. The final path model of drinking structure for boys, χ2 (d.f. = 3, N = 1,402) = 10.90, p = 0.012; CFI = 0.991, TLI = 0.969, and RMSEA = 0.043. Dashed single-headed arrows mean that the regression weights were restricted as zero. Straight single-headed arrows indicate standardized path coefficients. e1, e2, and e3 indicate unmeasured errors associated with each of the variables in the model. Double-headed arrow indicates covariance of exogenous variable. Variables with straight single-headed arrows indicate significant and direct effects to alcohol use at p < .05. Self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure shows significant indirect effects through a mediator, number of friends who drink alcohol, at p < .05.