Path model of smoking structure for girls. The final path model of smoking structure for girls, χ2 (d.f. = 2, N = 1,396) = 15.00, p = 0.001; CFI = .0.982, TLI = 0.910, and RMSEA = 0.068. Dashed single-headed arrows mean that the regression weights were restricted as zero. Straight single-headed arrows indicate standardized path coefficients. e1, e2, and e3 indicate unmeasured errors associated with each of the variables in the model. Double-headed arrow indicates covariance of exogenous variable. Variables with straight single-headed arrows indicate significant and direct effects to tobacco use at p < .05. Self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure and parental involvement indicate significant indirect effects to tobacco use through the mediators, number of friends who smoke tobacco and school adjustment, at p < .05.