Path model of smoking structure for boys. The final path model of smoking structure for boys, χ2 (d.f. = 1, N = 1,402) = 7.17, p = 0.007; CFI = .0.993, TLI = 0.933, and RMSEA = 0.066. Straight single-headed arrows indicate standardized path coefficients. e1, e2, and e3 indicate unmeasured errors associated with each of the variables in the model. Double-headed arrow indicates covariance of exogenous variable. All variables show significant and direct effects to tobacco use at p < .05. Self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure and parental involvement indicate significant indirect effects to tobacco use through the mediators, number of friends who smoke tobacco and school adjustment, at p < .05.